Siste nytt – rett fra forskningsfronten

2023 juli

Janicka W, Wilk I, Próchniak T. Does social motivation mitigate fear caused by a sudden sound in horses? Anim Cogn. 2023 Jul 14.

“…social motivation may mitigate fear caused by a frightening stimulus and make fearful and dependent horses more prone to face a potentially stressful event. This finding should be taken into account in horse training and management.”

2023 juni

Todd ET, Fromentier A, Sutcliffe R, Running Horse Collin Y, Perdereau A, Aury JM, Èche C, Bouchez O, Donnadieu C, Wincker P, Kalbfleisch T, Petersen JL, Orlando L. Imputed genomes of historical horses provide insights into modern breeding. iScience. 2023 Jun 14

“Historical genomes can provide important insights into recent genomic changes in horses, especially the development of modern breeds. In this study, we characterized 8.7 million genomic variants from a panel of 430 horses from 73 breeds, including newly sequenced genomes from 20 Clydesdales and 10 Shire horses.”

Medill SA, Janz DM, McLoughlin PD. Hair Cortisol Concentrations in Feral Horses and the Influence of Physiological and Social Factors. Animals (Basel). 2023 Jun 27

“Differences in HCC patterns between feral and domestically kept horses (e.g., age and sex) are likely linked to periods of resource limitations, particularly for individuals experiencing energetically demanding processes such as reproduction, illness/parasitism, or related to experiencing the full range of social and reproductive behaviors.”

Annan R, Trigg LE, Hockenhull J, Allen K, Butler D, Valenchon M, Mullan S. Racehorse welfare across a training season. Front Vet Sci. 2023 Jun 28

“The welfare assessment protocol used in this study proved to be suitable for use in industry to collect welfare data on racehorses in a training yard environment. The protocol uses non-invasive measures which can be carried out on a sample of horses in a relatively short period of time.”

2023 april

Torres Borda L, Auer U, Jenner F. Equine Social Behaviour: Love, War and Tolerance. Animals (Basel). 2023 Apr 26;13(9):1473.

“The 27 papers focused predominantly on socio-negative interactions by including 67.7% agonistic and only 26% affiliative, 5.1% investigative and 1.2% neutral social behaviours in their research. The strong emphasis on agonistic behaviour contrasts sharply with the rarity of agonistic behaviour in stable horse groups and the well-established importance of affiliative interactions for equine welfare.”

Harvey, A.M.; Beausoleil, N.J.; Ramp, D.; Mellor, D.J. Mental Experiences in Wild Animals: Scientifically Validating Measurable Welfare Indicators in Free-Roaming Horses. Animals 202313, 1507.

«This review collates, for the first time, the scientific evidence validating a range of welfare indicators for several mental experiences in horses. Whilst fewer indicators are practically able to be assessed in wild free-roaming horses compared to captive domesticated horses, we have nevertheless demonstrated that indicators can be assessed and validated for a range of negative and positive mental experiences. The negative mental experiences validated here include thirst, hunger, heat and cold discomfort, localised pain, non-specific chronic pain/malaise/fatigue/exhaustion, weakness, breathlessness, social pain, anxiety, and fear. The positive mental experiences validated here include pleasures associated with drinking, mastication, post-prandial satiety, cooling and warming, vitality of fitness, exercising agency, and participating in affiliative social interactions. This also highlights that the study of free-roaming animals under optimal conditions provides opportunity for learning more about those behaviours that an animal finds pleasurable.»

2023 mars

Kappel, S., Ramirez Montes De Oca, M.A., Collins, S. et al. Do you see what I see? Testing horses’ ability to recognise real-life objects from 2D computer projections. Anim Cogn (2023).

“As a species, horses may possess the basic capability to perceive the content of artificial visual stimuli such as digital image, but our findings indicate that in horses unfamiliar with two-dimensional representations image recognition might not be an ability that can be generalised across horses and testing situations. Instead, further research is warranted in order to understand how horses perceive (at sensory level) and interpret (at cognitive level) images for the human eye, especially if they are to be utilised as representations of real-life objects, as well as inter-individual variations in such abilities.”

Holtby, A.R., Hall, T.J., McGivney, B.A., Han, H., Murphy, K.J., MacHugh, D.E. et al. (2023) Integrative genomics analysis highlights functionally relevant genes for equine behaviour. Animal Genetics, 00, 1– 13.

“In this study we have observed that cortisol levels do not necessarily correspond to the perception of behaviour. Therefore, future studies including the measurement of cortisol should carefully consider the interpretations in the context of behaviour/temperament.”

Bradshaw-Wiley, E.; Randle, H. The Effect of Stabling Routines on Potential Behavioural Indicators of Affective State in Horses and Their Use in Assessing Quality of Life. Animals 202313, 1065.

“The behaviour of horses kept on day-stabling routines was compared to that of horses kept on night-stabling routines. Eight behaviours including ear movement and locomotory leg movements as well as yawning, recumbency, and non-nutritive chewing occurred significantly more often in horses on a night-stabling routine. These behaviours have been identified as potential indicators of affective state (the animal’s underlying emotional state) and equine welfare that can be used in dynamic quality of life assessments.”

2023 februar

Wolframm, I.A.; Douglas, J.; Pearson, G. Changing Hearts and Minds in the Equestrian World One Behaviour at a Time. Animals 202313, 748

“A combination of changing attitudes towards animal welfare, increasing (bio)ethical awareness, advances in communication technologies, and the pervasiveness of social media seems to have set in motion a shift in society’s acceptance of equestrian activities. As a result, equestrianism is under growing pressure—from both inside and outside the sector—to review its approach to safeguarding equine welfare. While it is clear that a comprehensive equine welfare strategy is required to turn the current tide, it seems equally clear that the success of any such strategy relies on the degree to which human behaviour subsequently changes in both the short- and long-term.”

Scholler, D.; Zablotski, Y.; May, A. Evaluation of Substance P as a New Stress Parameter in Horses in a Stress Model Involving Four Different Stress LevelsAnimals 202313, 1142.

“The main aim of the study was to evaluate substance P (SP) as a new stress parameter mainly addressing emotional stress reactions. Other objectives were to establish reference values for SP in horses and to compare concentrations to the established stress parameter cortisol.”

Dai, Francesca & Dalla Costa, Emanuela & Minero, Michela & Briant, Christine. (2023). Does housing system affect horse welfare? The AWIN welfare assessment protocol applied to horses kept in an outdoor group-housing system: The ‘parcours’. Animal Welfare.’parcours’

“The present study aimed at applying a scientifically valid welfare assessment protocol to group-housed outdoor horses in ‘parcours’, a particular management system used in the south of France. ‘Parcours’ are semi-natural areas, grazed by domestic herbivores located in lowland, mountain, or marsh.”

2023 januar

Karen L. Luke, Tina McAdie, Amanda K. Warren-Smith, Bradley P. Smith, Bit use and its relevance for rider safety, rider satisfaction and horse welfare in equestrian sport, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Volume 259, 2023

«The study found that while most horses are ridden with a bit, horses ridden without a bit performed fewer ridden hyperreactive behaviours and had higher relative welfare scores for handling and riding (based on owners’ self-report survey data). Ridden hyperreactive behaviour, including bucking, bolting, rearing, and spooking is considered a signal of poor welfare (McLean and Christensen, 2017, Ödberg and Bouissou, 1999), so fewer ridden hyperreactive behaviours is consistent with better relative horse welfare.»

Kieson, E.; Goma, A.A.; Radi, M. Tend and Befriend in Horses: Partner Preferences, Lateralization, and Contextualization of Allogrooming in Two Socially Stable Herds of Quarter Horse Mares. Animals 2023, 13, 225

“The findings suggest that horses deliberately engage in affiliative social grooming in higher frequency with bonded partners in environments where other stress behaviors are observed. This increase in affiliative behaviors with specific partners can help inform better management and husbandry practices with regards to positive welfare and wellbeing.”

Gwyneth Bohara, Bryony Lancaster, Hayley Randle, The effect of elastic reins on rein tension and performance in dressage horses, Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 59, 2023

“This study confirms that the application of specific equipment, even that designed to promote better welfare outcomes for the horse, needs to be considered on an individual horse basis.”

Brittany Perron, Ahmed Badr Abdelwahab Ali, Peyton Svagerko, Kristine Vernon, The influence of severity of gastric ulceration on horse behavior and heart rate variability, Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 59, 2023

«This study presented an association in behavior and HRV indices to gastric ulcer severity in horses. Horses with an ulcer score of 3 or 4 showed a more stressed pattern of behavior and HRV indices thus providing a potential method in determining severity of lesions without invasive procedures such as gastroscopy.»

2022 desember

Hintze S, Yee JR. Animals in flow – towards the scientific study of intrinsic reward in animals. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2022 Dec 29

“So far, studies on flow have all been conducted with human subjects; to our knowledge no empirical data on flow in non-human animals exist. Here we propose translating the concept of flow to non-human animals (i) to explore flow from a broader perspective than just the human one and (ii) to provide another approach to improve animal welfare.”

Farah Hanis, Eric Lim Teik Chung, Mamat Hamidi Kamalludin, Zulkifli Idrus,
Effect of feed modification on the behavior, blood profile, and telomere in horses exhibiting abnormal oral behaviors, Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 2022

“In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that a simple modification of diet by increasing forages and dietary fiber could improve the overall health and well-being of patrolling horses.”

Adriana Ferlazzo, Esterina Fazio, Cristina Cravana, Pietro Medica,
Equine-assisted services: An overview of current scientific contributions on efficacy and outcomes on humans and horses,
Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 59, 2023

“The review provides an overview of the current literature concerning the use of horses in equine-assisted services (EAS) and of their effects on humans, and it focuses on their effects on horses.”

Marie Eisersiö, Jenny Yngvesson, Elke Hartmann, Agneta Egenvall, Gaping for relief? Rein tension at onset and end of oral behaviors and head movements in unridden horses, Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 59, 2023

«Our results suggest that horses will open their mouth, or bite on the bit, to alleviate the oral tissues from pressure; move the head upward to avoid rein tension and move the head forward or downward to increase rein tension, likely in a presumed attempt to break free from the pressure applied.”

2022 november

Muñoz-Prieto, A.; Cerón, J.J.; Rubio, C.P.; Contreras-Aguilar, M.D.; Pardo-Marín, L.; Ayala-de la Peña, I.; Martín-Cuervo, M.; Holm Henriksen, I.-M.; Arense-Gonzalo, J.J.; Tecles, F.; Hansen, S. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Profile of Salivary Analytes for the Diagnosis of the Equine Gastric Ulcer SyndromeAnimals 202212, 3261

“In conclusion, the results showed that selected salivary analytes could have potential use as biomarkers in horses with EGUS.”

2022 oktober

Carroll, S.L.; Sykes, B.W.; Mills, P.C. Moving toward Fear-Free Husbandry and Veterinary Care for HorsesAnimals 202212, 2907

“The companion animal sector and the zoo sector have made significant strides towards recognizing and reducing fear during health care. This review discusses the potential for improving horse experiences during husbandry and veterinary procedures.”

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