Manteca Vilanova, X.; Beaver, B.; Uldahl, M.; Turner, P.V. Recommendations for Ensuring Good Welfare of Horses Used for Industrial Blood, Serum, or Urine Production. Animals 2021, 11, 1466
“Because of their large size, blood, serum, or other substances are often collected from horses for production of biologics and therapeutics used in humans and other animals. There are few international guidelines that provide recommendations for caring for horses kept for these purposes. In this paper, general guidelines are provided to ensure well-being of horses kept for production of biologics.”
Manteca Vilanova, De Briyne, Beaver, & Turner, Horse Welfare During Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) Production. Animals, 9(12), 1053.
“Collection of blood from pregnant mares for the purpose of extracting eCG has the potential to significantly compromise brood mare health and welfare. Consistent implementation of a range of strategies, as discussed, is needed to protect these mares.”