Hva sier forskningen om tegn på stress og smerter?
Dyson, S. (2022), The Ridden Horse Pain Ethogram. Equine Vet Educ, 34: 372-380.
“The Ridden Horse Pain Ethogram (RHpE) comprises 24 behviours, the majority of which are at least 10 times more likely to be seen in lame horses compared with non-lame horses.”
Dyson, S., Bondi, A., Routh, J., Pollard, D., Preston, T., McConnell, C. and Kydd, J. (2022), Do owners recognise abnormal equine behaviour when tacking-up and mounting? A comparison between responses to a questionnaire and real-time observations. Equine Vet Educ, 34: e375-e384.
“The majority of owners were unaware that their horses showed behavioural abnormalities during tacking-up or mounting.”
Dyson, S., Bondi, A., Routh, J. and Pollard, D. (2022), An investigation into the relationship between equine behaviour when tacked-up and mounted and epaxial muscle hypertonicity or pain, girth region hypersensitivity, saddle-fit, rider position and balance, and lameness. Equine Vet Educ, 34: e258-e267.
“The display of many behaviours during tacking-up or mounting is likely to reflect lameness or tack-associated discomfort. Owners must be better educated to recognise these behaviours.”
Lundblad J, Rashid M, Rhodin M, Haubro Andersen P., Effect of transportation and social isolation on facial expressions of healthy horses. PLoS ONE 16(6), 2021
“This study describes the facial expressions in healthy horses free of pain before and during transportation and social isolation, which are putatively stressful but ordinary management procedures.”
Andersen, P.H.; Broomé, S.; Rashid, M.; Lundblad, J.; Ask, K.; Li, Z.; Hernlund, E.; Rhodin, M.; Kjellström, H. Towards Machine Recognition of Facial Expressions of Pain in Horses. Animals 2021, 11, 1643
“The aim of this scoping review was to share efforts aimed at automating the process of recognizing and assessing pain, using the horse as a model agricultural species.”
Torcivia, C. and McDonnell, S., “Equine Discomfort Ethogram”, Animals 2021, 11(2), 580
«This research and clinical work included systematic evaluation of thousands of hours of video-recordings, including many hundreds of normal, healthy horses, as well as hospitalized patients with various complaints and/or known medical, neurologic, or orthopedic conditions. Each of 73 ethogram entries is named, defined, and accompanied by a line drawing illustration. Links to online video recorded examples are provided, illustrating each behavior in one or more hospitalized equine patients.”
Dyson, S., Martin, C., Bondi, A. and Ellis, A.D. (2022), The influence of rider skill on ridden horse behaviour, assessed using the Ridden Horse Pain Ethogram, and gait quality. Equine Vet Educ, 34: e308-e317.
“There was no direct relationship between rider skill level and the RHpE score, but riders did alter the manifestations of some behaviours.”
Ask, K. et al., “Identification of Body Behaviors and Facial Expressions Associated with Induced Orthopedic Pain in Four Equine Pain Scales”, Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 19;10(11):2155
“Reliability of facial expression items was lower than reliability of behavioral items. These findings suggest that five body behaviors (posture, head position, location in the box stall, focus, and interactive behavior) should be included in a scale for live assessment of mild orthopedic pain. We also recommend inclusion of facial expressions in pain assessment.”
Merkies, Ready, Farkas, & Hodder, “Eye Blink Rates and Eyelid Twitches as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress in the Domestic Horse“. Animals, 9(8), 562.
“We exposed 33 horses to stressful situations such as separation from herdmates, denied access to feed and sudden introduction of a novel object, and determined that full and half eye blinks decrease in these situations. Feed restriction was the most stressful for the horse as indicated by increased heart rate, restless behaviour and high head position.”
P. A. M. van Loon, J. and Van Dierendonck, M. C., “Pain assessment in horses after orthopaedic surgery and with orthopaedic trauma”, Vet J 2019 Apr;246:85-91
“In accordance with the findings in other types of equine pain, the CPS and FAP proved useful and valid for objective and repeatable assessment of pain in horses with orthopaedic trauma or after orthopaedic surgery. This can further aid treatment of horses in clinical practice and might improve equine welfare”
Broomeé S. et al., “Dynamics are Important for the Recognition of Equine Pain in Video”, Project: EquineML
“While equine pain detection in machine learning is a novel field, our results surpass veterinary expert performance and outperform pain detection results reported for other larger non-human species.”
Lawson, A. L. et al., “Application of an equine composite pain scale and its association with plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations and serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic”, E quine vet. Educ. (2020) 32 (Suppl. 11) 20-27
Application of an equine composite pain scale and its association with plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations and serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic – Lawson – 2020 – Equine Veterinary Education – Wiley Online Library
“This study assessed the application of a modified equine composite pain scale (CPS) and identified the inter-observer reliability. Associations between CPS scores and the measured concentrations of serum cortisol ([cortisol]) and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone ([ACTH]) in horses presenting with colic were determined.”
P. A. M. van Loon, J. and Van Dierendonck, M. C “Objective pain assessment in horses (2014–2018)”, The Veterinary Journal Volume 242, December 2018, Pages 1-7
“Currently, composite pain scales and facial expression-based pain scales seem to be the most promising tools for pain assessment in horses and numerous studies have recently been published on the use of these pain scales in horses. Therefore, this narrative review mainly focuses on these two types of pain scales and on the studies that have appeared describing these type of pain scales in horses. ”
P. A. M. van Loon, J. and Van Dierendonck, M. C., “Monitoring equine head-related pain with the Equine Utrecht University scale for facial assessment of pain (EQUUS-FAP)“, The Veterinary Journal Volume 220, February 2017, Pages 88-90
«This study validates a recently described pain scale, the Equine Utrecht University scale for facial assessment of pain (EQUUS-FAP), in horses with acute or postoperative pain originating from the head, including dental pain, ocular pain, or trauma to the skull.»
Gleerup, K. B. and Lindegaard, C., “Recognition and quantification of pain in horses: A tutorial review”, Equine vet. Educ. (2016) 28 (1) 47-57
“This paper reviews the existing knowledge base regarding the identification and quantification of pain in horses. Behavioural indicators of pain in horses in the context of normal equine behaviour, as well as various physiological parameters potentially useful for pain evaluation, are discussed.”
P. A. M. van Loon, J. and Van Dierendonck, M. C., “Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A scale-construction study”, Vet J 2015 Dec;206(3):356-64
Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A scale-construction study – PubMed (nih.gov)
“This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) in horses with acute colic.”
De Grauw, J. C., P. A. M. van Loon, “Systematic pain assessment in horses” The Veterinary Journal 209
“This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation.”
Costa, E. D. et al., “Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration”, PLoS ONE 9(3): e92281.
“The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]).”
Gleerup, K. B et al., «An equine pain face», Vet Anaesth Analg 2015 Jan;42(1):103-14.
“An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles expressions can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain.”