Hva sier forskningen om miljøberikelser?
Melvin, M. V., Costello, E., & Colpoys, J. D. (2020). Enclosed versus ring feeders: Impacts of round bale feeder type on horse behavior and welfare. Journal of Veterinary Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2020.07.004
«Although there was no indication that horses fed through the ring feeder had poor welfare, horses showed a preference toward the enclosed feeder. Thus, the enclosed feeder may be beneficial for improving horse welfare by providing horses with a resource they prefer and reducing distress experienced by horses while eating.»
Correa, M. G., Rodrigues e Silva, C. F., Dias, L. A., da Silva Rocha Junior, S., Thomes, F. R., Alberto do Lago, L., … Faleiros, R. R. (2020). Welfare Benefits Following The Implementation Of Slow-Feeder Hay Bags For Stabled Horses. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
“Horse confinement is a common practice worldwide. However, preventing horses from grazing and denying them social interaction can compromise their welfare and lead to undesirable consequences […] In conclusion, the adoption of a slow-feeder bag, an available and low-cost device, was effective in improving the welfare of stabled horses.”
Hartman, N., & Greening, L. M. (2019). A Preliminary Study Investigating the Influence of Auditory Stimulation on the Occurrence of Nocturnal Equine Sleep-Related Behavior in Stabled Horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 102782.
“Overall, vigilant behavior (‘head over door’ and ‘other’ behaviors) appeared to decrease in a trade-off with restful behaviors and ingestion suggesting music may have a calming influence. An understanding of the longer term effects of music on the equine nocturnal behavioral profile is required, along with supporting physiological data and investigations of equine sleep rebound and the impact of daytime exercise.”
Rochais, C., Henry, S., & Hausberger, M. (2018). “Hay-bags” and “Slow feeders”: Testing their impact on horse behaviour and welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 198, 52–59.
“We found that horses increased their time feeding on hay in both the hay-bag and the slow-feeder treatments compared to the hay on the stall ground treatment. While the hay-bag distribution was associated with an increase of frustration behaviours, the slow-feeder reduced “undesirable” behaviours, such as stereotypic behaviours, and increased “friendliness” towards humans”
Lansade, L., Valenchon, M., Foury, A., Neveux, C., Cole, S. W., Layé, S., … Moisan, M.-P. (2014). Behavioral and Transcriptomic Fingerprints of an Enriched Environment in Horses (Equus caballus). PLoS ONE, 9(12), e114384.
«Overall, our data show that a 12-week EE combining complex inanimate and social stimuli has beneficial effects on horses in terms of personality traits, learning abilities, and general well-being.»
Jørgensen, G. H. M., Liestøl, S. H.-O., & Bøe, K. E. (2011). Effects of enrichment items on activity and social interactions in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 129(2-4), 100–110.
«In conclusion, if grass is not available in paddocks, the provision of roughage reduces the amount of passive behaviours in singly kept horses and it also reduces the risk of agonistic interactions between horses kept in group.”
Whisher, L., Raum, M., Pina, L., Pérez, L., Erb, H., Houpt, C., & Houpt, K. (2011). Effects of environmental factors on cribbing activity by horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 135(1-2), 63–69.
«A stall toy that increased oral activity lowered cribbing rate slightly. The horses cribbed significantly more frequently when fed a sweetened grain diet (29.8 ± 7.4% of the day) than when fed oats (16 ± 4.1%). Although no treatment abolished cribbing in these adult horses, modifying diet and increasing foraging behavior with a toy the horse could only lick lowered the time spent cribbing.»
Thorne, J. B., Goodwin, D., Kennedy, M. J., Davidson, H. P. B., & Harris, P. (2005). Foraging enrichment for individually housed horses: Practicality and effects on behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 94(1-2), 149–164. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2005.02.002
“The results indicate that the potentially beneficial behavioural effects of short-term multiple forage provision do persist when horses are managed on a multiple forage (MF) diet for a 7-day period. They suggest that a MF diet provides a means of enriching the stabled horse’s environment, by offering variety and enabling patch foraging behaviour. The methodology proved practical for maintaining horses under forage-enriched conditions and could easily be adopted by horse owners to facilitate foraging behaviour”
GOODWIN, D., DAVIDSON, H. P. B., & HARRIS, P. (2010). Foraging enrichment for stabled horses: effects on behaviour and selection. Equine Veterinary Journal, 34(7), 686–691.
«…these trials indicate that enrichment of the stable environment through provision of multiple forages may have welfare benefits for horses, in reducing straw consumption and facilitating the expression of highly motivated foraging behaviour.»
Newberry, R. C. (1995). Environmental enrichment: Increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 44(2-4), 229–243. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(95)00616-z
«Potential methods of achieving enrichment that require further investigation include presenting food in ways that stimulate foraging behaviour and dividing enclosures into different functional areas. The quality of the external environment within the animals’ sensory range also deserves greater attention. A common shortcoming of attempts at environmental enrichment is the provision of toys, music or other stimuli having little functional relevance to the animals.»