Hva sier forskningen om forholdet mellom hest og menneske?
Adriana Ferlazzo, Esterina Fazio, Cristina Cravana, Pietro Medica,
Equine-assisted services: An overview of current scientific contributions on efficacy and outcomes on humans and horses,
Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 59, 2023
“The review provides an overview of the current literature concerning the use of horses in equine-assisted services (EAS) and of their effects on humans, and it focuses on their effects on horses.”
Merkies, K.; Sudarenko, Y.; Hodder, A.J. Can Ponies (Equus Caballus) Distinguish Human Facial Expressions? Animals 2022, 12, 2331
“This study provides the first evidence that ponies can distinguish among human facial expressions presented by live humans. Angry faces resulted in activation of the right hemisphere as ponies viewed the human first, more often and longer with their left eye.”
Merkies, K.; Franzin, O. Enhanced Understanding of Horse–Human Interactions to Optimize Welfare. Animals 2021, 11, 1347
Enhanced Understanding of Horse–Human Interactions to Optimize Welfare (nih.gov)
“The objective of this literature review is to explore aspects of the relationship between humans and horses to better understand the horse’s umwelt and thereby shed new light on potential positive approaches to enhance equine welfare with humans.”
Kieson, E., Felix, C., Webb, S., & Abramson, C. I. (2020). The effects of a choice test between food rewards and human interaction in a herd of domestic horses of varying breeds and experiences. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 231, 105075.
The effects of a choice test between food rewards and human interaction in a herd of domestic horses of varying breeds and experiences – ScienceDirect
«This study looked at how horses perceive human interaction as a form of positive reward by examining whether scratching and patting can serve as a reward for a behavior and how this compares to known rewards (treats) based on horses’ ability to use symbols to show preferences.[…] …, all horses in this study showed preference for treats over human contact, regardless of handling or training histories.»
D’ Ingeo, S., Quaranta, A., Siniscalchi, M., Stomp, M., Coste, C., Bagnard, C., … Cousillas, H. (2019). Horses associate individual human voices with the valence of past interactions: a behavioural and electrophysiological study. Scientific Reports, 9(1).
Horses associate individual human voices with the valence of past interactions: a behavioural and electrophysiological study – PubMed (nih.gov)
«In the present study, we tested whether horses could associate individual human voices with past positive or negative experiences. Both behavioural and electroencephalographic measures allowed examining laterality patterns in addition to the behavioural reactions. The results show that horses reacted to voices associated with past positive experiences with increased attention/ arousal (gamma oscillations in the right hemisphere) and indicators of a positive emotional state (left hemisphere activation and ears held forward), and to those associated with past negative experiences with negative afective states (right hemisphere activation and ears held backwards).»
Baba, C., Kawai, M., & Takimoto-Inose, A. (2019). Are Horses (Equus caballus) Sensitive to Human Emotional Cues? Animals, 9(9), 630.
Are Horses ( Equus caballus) Sensitive to Human Emotional Cues? – PubMed (nih.gov)
“The results revealed that human emotional cues influenced the frequency of gaze following and the amount of time that horses looked at humans. Horses avoided following the human gaze and looked in their direction for a shorter period of time when humans displayed expressions of disgust. These findings support our hypothesis that horses exhibit sensitivity to negative human emotional cues.”
Smith, A. V., Proops, L., Grounds, K., Wathan, J., & McComb, K. (2016). Functionally relevant responses to human facial expressions of emotion in the domestic horse (Equus caballus). Biology Letters, 12(2), 20150907.
(PDF) Functionally relevant responses to human facial expressions of emotion in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) (researchgate.net)
«This study presents the first evidence of horses’ abilities to spontaneously discriminate between positive (happy) and negative (angry) human facial expressions in photographs.»
Sankey, C., Richard-Yris, M.-A., Leroy, H., Henry, S., & Hausberger, M. (2010). Positive interactions lead to lasting positive memories in horses, Equus caballus. Animal Behaviour, 79(4), 869–875.
Positive interactions lead to lasting positive memories in horses, Equus caballus – ScienceDirect
«The association of a reward with a learning task in an interactional context induced positive reactions towards humans during training. It also increased contact and interest, not only just after training, but also several months later, despite no further interaction with humans. In addition, this ‘positive memory’ of humans extended to novel persons.»
Sankey, C., Richard-Yris, M.-A., Henry, S., Fureix, C., Nassur, F., & Hausberger, M. (2010). Reinforcement as a mediator of the perception of humans by horses (Equus caballus). Animal Cognition, 13(5), 753–764.
Reinforcement as a mediator of the perception of humans by horses (Equus caballus) – PubMed (nih.gov)
«The results showed that the type of reinforcement had a major effect on the subsequent animals’ perception of familiar and unfamiliar humans. Negative reinforcement was rapidly associated with an increased emotional state, as revealed by heart rate measurements and behavioural observations (head movements and ears laid back position). Its use led the ponies to seek less contact with humans. On the contrary, ponies trained with positive reinforcement showed an increased interest in humans and sought contact after training.»
Fureix, C., Jego, P., Sankey, C., & Hausberger, M. (2009). How horses (Equus caballus) see the world: humans as significant “objects.” Animal Cognition, 12(4), 643–654.
How horses (Equus caballus) see the world: humans as significant “objects” | SpringerLink
«These results support our hypothesis that perception of humans by horses may be based on experience, i.e. repeated interactions. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that horses can form a memory of humans that impacts their reactions in subsequent interactions.»
Baragli, P., Gazzano, A., Martelli, F., & Sighieri, C. (2009). How Do Horses Appraise Humans’ Actions? A Brief Note over a Practical Way to Assess Stimulus Perception. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 29(10), 739–742.
How Do Horses Appraise Humans’ Actions? A Brief Note over a Practical Way to Assess Stimulus Perception – ScienceDirect
«Heart rate (HR) is considered to be an effective tool for assessing animals’ emotional response to a stimulus. We investigated changes in HR during a series of handling procedures (grooming test) in horses that had different experiences of human interaction.»
Hausberger, M., Gautier, E., Biquand, V., Lunel, C., & Jégo, P. (2009). Could Work Be a Source of Behavioural Disorders? A Study in Horses. PLoS ONE, 4(10), e7625. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007625
Could Work Be a Source of Behavioural Disorders? A Study in Horses (plos.org)
«Observations in their box of 76 horses all living in the same conditions, belonging to one breed and one sex, revealed that the prevalence and types of stereotypies performed strongly depended upon the type of work they were used for. The stereotypies observed involved mostly mouth movements and head tossing/nodding. Work constraints probably added to unfavourable living conditions, favouring the emergence of chronic abnormal behaviours. This is especially remarkable as the 23 hours spent in the box were influenced by the one hour work performed every day. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of potential effects of work stressors on the emergence of abnormal behaviours in an animal species. It raises an important line of thought on the chronic impact of the work situation on the daily life of individuals.»
Proops, L., & McComb, K. (2009). Attributing attention: the use of human-given cues by domestic horses (Equus caballus). Animal Cognition, 13(2), 197–205.
Attributing attention: the use of human-given cues by domestic horses (Equus caballus) | SpringerLink
«Horses chose the attentive person significantly more often using the body cue, head cue, and eye cue but not the mixed cue. This result suggests that domestic horses are highly sensitive to human attentional cues, including gaze.»
Hausberger, M., & Muller, C. (2002). A brief note on some possible factors involved in the reactions of horses to humans. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 76(4), 339–344.
A brief note on some possible factors involved in the reactions of horses to humans – ScienceDirect
«Clear variations occurred between groups of horses that depended on different caretakers. In this school, one caretaker is responsible for the whole daily management of a group of horses and is probably a very important factor in their well-being. The effects of this daily relation to a human seemed to be involved in the reactions to a strange person. »